Striving for perfection in ancient greek and roman time

Persephone and Demeter, Athenian red-figure lekythos C5th B. These two etymologies, however do not suggest any difference in the character of the goddess, but leave it essentially the same.

Striving for perfection in ancient greek and roman time

WHAT an unaccountable thing is it for so many men to blindfold themselves on purpose to fall foul upon Christianity! And to such a degree that they cannot talk about the noted probity of any Christian without allaying his character with a dash of his religion!

I will tell you what says anotherI wonder that Lucius the philo- sopher is all of a sudden turned Christian. And none has sense enough in his passion to put the question right, and argue in this manner. Is not Caius so good, and Lucius so wise, merely from the influence of their religion?

Or was it not the probity of one, and the wisdom of the other, that prepared the way, and brought them over to be Christians? Thus indeed they praise what they know, but vilify what they know not; they blot the fairest examples of virtue shining in their very eyes, because of a religion they are entirely in the dark about; whereas certainly, by all the rules of reason, we ought to judge of the nature of causes we see not, by the effects we see, and not pre-condemn apparent goodness for principles we understand not.

Others, discoursing of some persons, whom they knew to be vagrants, and infamously lewd before they came over to our religion, drop their praises upon them in such a manner, that they stigmatize them with their very compliments; so darkened are they with prejudice that they blunder into the commendation of the thing they would condemn.

For say they how wanton, and how witty was such a woman! Some others are arrived to that pitch of aversion to the very name of Christian, that they seem to have entered into covenant with hatred, and bargained to gratify this passion at the expense of all the satisfactions of human life, acquiescing in the grossest of injuries rather than the hated thing of Christian should come within their doors.

So that the husband had rather have his wife false, the father his son a rebel, the master his servant a rogue, than Christians and good: Now, therefore, if all this odium arises purely upon the account of our name, pray tell me how a poor name comes to be thus to blame, or a simple word to be a criminal?

Unless it be that the word is barbarous, or sounds ominously, reproachfully, or obscenely. But Christians is a Greek word, and means nothing more than a disciple of Christ, which by interpretation is the Anointed; and when you misname it Chrestian1 for so far are you from under- standing our religion, that as yet you know not our true nameeven then it implies nothing worse than a benignity and sweetness of temper; thus outrageous are you at the sound of a name as inoffen- sive and harmless as those who bear it.

Striving for perfection in ancient greek and roman time

But do men use to let loose their passions at this rate against any sect merely from the name of its founder? Is it a new thing for scholars to be named from their masters? Is it not from hence that philosophers are called Platonists, Epicureans, Pythagoreans, etc.?

Do not the Stoics and academics derive their names from the porch or academy,2 the places where they meet and discourse together? And do not 1 Sed et cum perperam Chrestianus pronunciatur a vobis. In a word, before we give entertainment to hatred against any sect whatever, upon account of its name, we ought in the first place to have competently examined the nature of the institution, and traced out its qualities from the author, or the author from them ; but both these ways of inquiry are quite neglected, and our enemies storm and fire at a word only.

Our heavenly Master and His heavenly religion are both unknown, and both condemned, without any other considera- tion but that of the bare name of Christian. THUS far I have been something severe, as it were, by way of preface, to make men sensible if I could of the injustice of the 1 Erasistratus.

This physician is mentioned by our Tertullian, lib. An epicure of famous memory, styled by Pliny Nepotum omnium altissimus Gurges ; and so again by Juvenal: And here I shall not only refute the objections against us, but retort those very objections against the objectors themselves, to let the world see that Christians are not the men they take them to be, nor sullied with those crimes they are conscious of in themselves; and to sec also whether I can make our accusers blush, not by charging them in general, as the worst of men accusing the best, but supposing us both upon the level of iniquity.

I shall touch upon all the particulars we are taxed with for committing in private, and for which we are publicly branded as immoral, superstitious, damnable, and ridiculous; these very crimes, I say, which you grant we have not the forehead to do without the protection of darkness, we find our enemies hardy enough to commit in the face of the sun.

But because we meet you with unanswerable truth at all your turnings, your last resort is to the authority of the laws, as more inviolable than truth itself; and it being so frequently in your mouths, either that nothing ought to be revoked after once con- demned by law; or that your sworn obedience is a necessity upon your actions, weightier than that of justice.

I shall first enter upon the obligation due to human laws with you who are the sworn protectors of them. First then, when you rigidly insist upon this, that Christianity is against law, and prescribe against dispensing one jot with the letter upon any considerations of equity, this, I say, is acting iniquity by law; and you sit rather like tyrants than judges of a court, willing a thing to be unlawful, because you will, and not because it is so.

But if your will is regulated by the measures of good and evil, and you forbid a thing because it ought to be forbidden, then certainly, by this rule of right reason, you cannot license evil, nor forbid the obligations of doing good.

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If I find a prohibition issued out against the laws of nature, do not I conclude such a prohibition to be invalid? Whereas, if the matter of it be lawful, I never dispute my obedience,1 nor think it strange 1 Quod si malum esset, jure prohiberet.

Here we have the measures of obedience due to human laws briefly stated byTertullian: Is it so strange to see mortals out of the way in making laws, and wiser upon experience, and repealing what they once approved? Did not the laws even of Lycurgus suffer amendments? Was not their severity sweetened by the Spartans, and better accommodated to civil use?

Does not your experience light you every day to the mistakes and rubbish of antiquity? And have you not cut down a huge and horrid wood of old laws, and planted the new edicts and rescripts of the emperors in their stead?

Did not Severus, of all the emperors least given to change, lately alter the Papian law,1 vainly solicitous about the propagation of children before the time allowed for matrimony by the Julian law without any respect to the venerableness of antiquity? But if the magistrate cannot lawfully command in things where neither the natural nor the positive law of God interpose to the contrary, he can command in nothing, because such things only can be subject to his disposal.

Concerning these laws, see Rigaltius and Pamelius upon this place. But that which I remark is, that Scaliger would infer from the following words that this Apology was not composed till a little after the death of Severus, because it is said, heri Severus, etc.

But I shall show this opinion to be evidently a mistake of Scaliger in the sequel of this Apology. Here he evi- dently alludes to the law of the twelve tables, cap.

The meaning of which, as it is explained by A.Acts of Faith, Hope, and Charity Faith. O my God, I believe in Thee, because Thou art the infallible Truth; I believe all the truths which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them to her.

Meton and Euctemon are associated with another important astronomical invention of the time, namely a parapegma.A parapegma was a stone tablet with movable pegs and an inscription to indicate the approximate correspondence between, for example, the rising of a particular star and the civil date.

Lecture 15 Christianity as a Cultural Revolution: When Christianity came to the Roman Empire it performed perhaps one of the most significant cultural revolutions in the history of the West.

the. apology of tertullian.

Chapter Preface — The Author's Object — The Utility of Written Compositions.

translated and annotated by. wm. reeve, a.m. sometime vicar of cranford, middlesex. and the.

Western philosophy - Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy | yunusemremert.com

meditations of the emperor. marcus aurelius. Sources. SCHEEBEN wrote copiously and learnedly in defence of the Vatican Council; his article in the Kirchenlexicon, written in , contains the marrow of his previous writings, while HEFELE'S History of the Councils is the standard work on the subject.

DESERT FATHERS OF EGYPT AND CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY. The early phase of Coptic monasticism is more complex than generally thought. One of the most evocative periods in the history of Christianity, the various texts associated with Antony, Pakhom, . DESERT FATHERS OF EGYPT AND CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY. The early phase of Coptic monasticism is more complex than generally thought. One of the most evocative periods in the history of Christianity, the various texts associated with Antony, Pakhom, . In the beginning was the λόγος (John ) The word λόγος (logos) in the prologue of John's Gospel is a word with a very interesting history in ancient theological yunusemremert.com is translated 'Word' in English versions, but this translation does not express everything that the term would have suggested to ancient .

For a deeper study of the councils a good collection of the Acta Conciliorum is indispensable. The first ever printed was the very. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man.

It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and.

The Grace Given You in Christ: Catholics and Methodists Reflect Further on the Church